Disaggregating MDG progress data by wealth quintile reveals markedly different rates of progress between groups categorized by wealth, with the slowest progress among the poorest UNICEF Trends in Molecular Medicine 18, — Because urban sewer systems often emptied near drinking water intake sources, cities with most highly developed sewer systems were most likely to pollute their own drinking water. London: Penguin. Humphrey J. Hygiene, sanitation, and water: forgotten foundations of health. Whittington et al. Share your project on Rotary Showcase.
Diarrhea kills more children than malaria, measles, and AIDS combined. Proportional distribution of cause-specific deaths among children under five years of age, excluding neonatal deaths. Since , 2 billion people have gained access to improved drinking water sources and 1. However, worldwide, million people still do not have access to improved water sources and an estimated 2. Diarrheal diseases such as cholera kill more children than AIDS, malaria, and measles combined, making it the second leading cause of death among children under five 2. The pathogens that cause diarrhea are commonly spread by food or water that has been contaminated with human or animal feces. This contamination can occur in the environment as a result of inadequate sanitation and inadequate protection of drinking water sources and food products, or in the home through unsafe water storage and inadequate hygiene.
To accelerate progress in eliminating stunting, broader efforts are needed that reach beyond the nutrition sector to tackle the underlying determinants of undernutrition. This review article considers two broad questions: 1 can WASH interventions make a significant contribution to reducing the global prevalence of childhood stunting, and 2 how can WASH interventions be delivered to optimize their effect on stunting and accelerate progress? The evidence reviewed suggests that poor WASH conditions have a significant detrimental effect on child growth and development resulting from sustained exposure to enteric pathogens but also due to wider social and economic mechanisms. Realizing the potential of WASH to reduce stunting requires a redoubling of efforts to achieve universal access to these services as envisaged under the Sustainable Development Goals. Huge progress has been made in much of the South Asia region in extending healthcare, education and economic opportunity, and these investments have brought dramatic improvements in maternal and child mortality, in school retention rates and in overall economic output. Despite this laudable progress, the prevalence of childhood stunting in South Asia remains high with profound consequences for those children affected: increasing their susceptibility to infectious disease morbidity and mortality, diminishing their future educational achievements and reducing their economic productivity in later life. Water, sanitation and hygiene WASH, the focus of this paper, feature at various levels in these frameworks with varying degrees of proximity to the outcome of stunting, as immediate or proximate risk factors but also as more distant causes or determinants of stunting.